the first steps include to setup some comfort, in other words, to have something like an ide for developing at hand, so that you don't have to set all the env variables each time you want to run a program or to have basic comfort like syntax highlighting.
unfortunately no eclipse plugin is available at the time when these lines were written (i feel so prosaic today) but there is one under development on google code http://code.google.com/p/nefarious-ide/ which should integrate go smoothly into eclipse - so stay tuned for the release :-)
for those of you who think that the gedit is a acceptable intermediary solution there is a fantastic step-by-step guide available, how to configure gedit as an ide for the go programming language: http://gohelp.wordpress.com/. i setup gedit following that guide and it works just fine, so i recommend you stick to that guide as well.
right, after everything is setup correctly i recommend to start with the official tutorials to get to know the basic libs and operators: http://golang.org/doc/go_tutorial.html. a nice guidance is also the google-homemade effective go guide: http://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html.
happy coding :-)